Today we will learn about four important properties of electric charges; **additivity of electric charge, quantization of electric charge, conservation of electric charge and invariance of electric charge**. So lets start

**1. Charge is additive**: Remember that charge is a scalar quantity.

So that, the total charge on a body is equal to algebraic sum of positive and negative charges on it.

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**2. Charge is quantized:** Charge is always transferred as an integral multiple of charge of an electron i.e. Q = ne. Here n is an integer and e is charge of electron e =1.6×10** ^{-19}** C.

If a body is to be charged positively by 1 coulomb then **6.25 x 10^{-18} **electrons must be removed from it.

**3. Charge is conserved: **The total charge in an isolated system remains constant. Electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. This is known as law of conservation of charge.

**4. Charge is invariant: **Charge on a body does not change due to its motion. Whether the charged body is at rest or in motion, the charge on it will be same.

## ✅Sharpen Your Pencil ✍️

**Q. When a piece of polythene is rubbed with wool, a charge of – 2 × 10^{-7} C is developed on polythene. What is the amount of mass, which is transferred to the polythene.**

**Q. In a neutral sphere, 5× 10 ^{21} electrons are present. If 10 percent electrons are removed, then calculate the charge on the sphere. **

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